Scientific American Supplement, No. 421, January 26, 1884 by Various


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Page 3

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--WILD'S APPARATUS FOR STUDYING MAGNETIC
VARIATIONS.]

Among the apparatus designed for demonstration in lecture courses, we
remarked a solenoid of Prof. Von Beetz for demonstrating the
constitution of magnets (Fig. 11), and in which eight magnetized
needles, carrying mica disks painted half white and half black, move
under the influence of the currents that are traversing the solenoid,
or of magnets that are bought near to it externally. Another apparatus
of the same inventor is the lecture-course galvanometer (Fig. 3), in
which the horizontal needle bends back vertically over the external
surface of a cylinder that carries divisions that are plainly visible
to spectators at a distance.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--ELECTROMETER FOR ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATIONS.]

Finally, let us cite an instrument designed for demonstrating the
principle of the Gramme machine. A circular magnet, AA', is inserted
into a bobbin, B, divided into two parts, and moves under the
influence of a disk, L, actuated by a winch, M. This system permits of
studying the currents developed in each portion of the bobbin during
the revolution of the ring (Fig. 12).

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--WIEDEMANN'S CURRENT BREAKER.]

To end our review of the scientific apparatus at the exhibition we
shall merely mention Mr. Van Rysselberghe's registering
thermometrograph (shown in Figs. 13 and 14), and shall then say a few
words concerning two types of registering apparatus--Mr. Harlacher's
water-current register and Prof. Von Beetz's chronograph.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--WIEDEMANN'S BIFILAR GALVANOMETER.]

Mr. Harlacher's apparatus was devised by him for studying the deep
currents of the Elbe. It is carried (Fig. 15) by a long, vertical,
hollow rod which is plunged into the river. A cord that passes over a
pulley, P, allows of the apparatus, properly so called, being let down
to a certain depth in the water. What is registered is the velocity of
the vanes that are set in action by the current, and to effect such
registry each revolution of the helix produces in the box, C, an
electric contact that closes the circuit in the cable, F, attached to
the terminals, B. This cable forms part of a circuit that includes a
pile and a registering apparatus that is seen at L, outside of the box
in which it is usually inclosed. In certain cases, a bell whose sound
indicates the velocity of the current to the ear is substituted for
the registering apparatus.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--WIEDEMANN'S GALVANOMETER FOR STRONG CURRENTS.]

Fig. 16 represents another type of the same apparatus in which the
mechanism of the contact is uncovered. The supporting rod is likewise
in this type utilized as a current conductor.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--ZENGER'S DIFFERENTIAL PHOTOMETER.]

It now remains to say a few words about Prof. Von Beetz's chronograph.
This instrument (Fig. 17) is designed for determining the duration of
combustion of different powders, the velocity of projectiles, etc. The
registering drum, T, is revolved by hand through a winch, L, and the
time is inscribed thereon by an electric tuning fork, S, set in motion
by the large electro-magnet, E F. Each undulation of the curves
corresponds to a hundredth of a second. The tuning-fork and the
registering electro-magnets, G and H, are placed upon a regulatable
support, C, by means of which they may be given any position desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--VON BEETZ'S SOLENOID FOR DEMONSTRATING THE
CONSTITUTION OF MAGNETS.]

The style, c, of the magnet, C, traces a point every second in order
to facilitate the reading. The style, b, of the electro-magnet, H,
registers the beginning and end of the phenomena that are being
studied.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--APPARATUS FOR DEMONSTRATING THE PRINCIPLE OF
THE GRAMME MACHINE.]

The apparatus is arranged in such a way that indications may thus be
obtained upon the drum by means of induction sparks jumping between
the style and the surface of the cylinder. To the left of the figure
is seen the apparatus constructed by Lieutenant Ziegler for
experimenting on the duration of combustion of bomb fuses.

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