Scientific American Supplement, No. 421, January 26, 1884 by Various


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III. ELECTRICITY, ETC.--Electrical Apparatus for Measuring
and for Demonstration at the Munich Exhibition.--With
descriptions and numerous illustrations of the different
machines. 6711

A New Oxide of Copper Battery.--By F. De Lalande and S.
Chaperon.--With description and three illustrations. 6714

IV. MATHEMATICS, ETC.--To Find the Time of Twilight.--1 figure. 6720

A New Rule for Division in Arithmetic. 6725

Experiments in Binary Arithmetic. 6726

Monument of Philopappus.--Tomb from the Ceramicus.--Tower
of the winds.--The Acropolis.--Old Corinth.--Temple of
Jupiter.--The Parthenon.--Temple of Theseus, etc. 6721

VI. NATURAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY, ETC.--Poisonous Serpents and
their Venom.--By Dr. Archie Stockwell.--A serpent's mouth,
fangs, and poison gland.--Manner of attack.--Nature of
the venom.--Action of venom.--Remedies. 6719

Ethnological Notes.--Papuans.--Negritos. 6720

VII. HORTICULTURE, BOTANY, ETC.--The Hornbeams.--Uses to
which the tree is put.--Wood for manufactures.--For
fuel.--Different varieties.--With engravings of the tree
as a whole, and of its leaves, fruit, flowers, etc. 6724

Fruit of Camellia Japonica.--1 engraving. 6725

VIII. MEDICINE. SANITATION, ETC.--House Drainage and Refuse.
Abstract of a lecture by Capt. Douglas Galton.--Treating
of the removal of the refuse from camps, small towns, and
houses.--Conditions to observe in house drains, etc. 6717

Pasteur's New Method of Attenuation. 6718

Convenient Vaults. 6719

IX. MISCELLANEOUS.--Spanish Fisheries.--Noticeable objects
in the Spanish Court at the late Fisheries Exhibition. 6722

Duck Shooting at Montauk. 6723

* * * * *


Apparatus for use in laboratories and cabinets of physics were quite
numerous at the Munich Exhibition of Electricity, and very naturally a
large number was to be seen there that presented little difference
with present models. Several of them, however, merit citation. Among
the galvanometers, we remarked an apparatus that was exhibited by
Prof. Zenger, of Prague. The construction of this reminded us of that
of other galvanometers, but it was interesting in that its inventor
had combined in it a series of arrangements that permitted of varying
its sensitiveness within very wide limits. This apparatus, which Prof.
Zenger calls a "Universal Rheometer" (Fig. 1), consists of a bobbin
whose interior is formed of a piece of copper, whose edges do not
meet, and which is connected by strips of copper with two terminals.
This internal shell is capable of serving for currents of quantity,
and, when the two terminals are united by a wire, it may serve as a
deadener. Above this copper shell there are two identical coils of
wire which may, according to circumstances, be coupled in tension or
in series, or be employed differentially. Reading is performed either
by the aid of a needle moving over a dial, or by means of a mirror,
which is not shown in the figure. Finally, there is a lateral scale,
R, which carries a magnetized bar, A, that may be slid toward the
galvanometer. This magnet is capable of rendering the needle less
sensitive or of making it astatic. In order to facilitate this
operation, the magnet carries at its extremity a tube which contains a
bar of soft iron that may be moved slightly so as to vary the length
of the magnet. Prof. Zenger calls this arrangement a magnetic vernier.
It will be seen that, upon combining all the elements of the
apparatus, we can obtain very different combinations; and, according
to the inventor, his rheometer is a substitute for a dozen
galvanometers of various degrees of sensitiveness, and permits of
measuring currents of from 20 amperes down to 1/50000000 an ampere.
The apparatus may even be employed for measuring magnetic forces, as
it constitutes a very sensitive magnetometer.

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