Scientific American Supplement, No. 623, December 10, 1887 by Various


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IV. ELECTRICITY.--An Electrical Governor--A new apparatus for
preserving a constant electromotive force with varying
dynamo speed--1 illustration. 9952

Electric Launch--A French government launch with Krebs
electric motor. 9954

The electric current as a means of increasing the tractive
adhesion of railway motors and other rolling contacts.--By
ELIAS E. RIES--A full review of this important subject, with
accounts of its experimental examination. 9953

V. ENGINEERING--Benier's Hot Air Engine--A new caloric engine
very fully illustrated and described--8 illustrations. 9943

Heating Marine Boilers with Liquid Fuel--A simple apparatus
and recent experiments with the same.--3 illustrations. 9945

The Change of Gauge of Southern Railroads in 1886--By C.H.
HUDSON.--The conclusion of the account of this great
engineering feat, with tables of statistics and data--16
illustrations. 9946

Your Future Problems--By CHAS. E. EMERY--An address to
the graduating class of the Stevens Institute, N.J.--A
practical view of the engineering profession. 9943

VI. MISCELLANEOUS--A Group of Hampshire Downs--A typical
breed of sheep, their qualities and habits.--1 illustration. 9957

VII. NAVAL ENGINEERING--The Spanish Cruiser Reina Regente--A
further description of this celebrated vessel--4
illustrations. 9948

Torpedo Boats for Spain--The Azor and Halcon, two Yarrow
torpedo boats, described and illustrated--7 illustrations. 9947

VIII. PHOTOGRAPHY--How Different Tones in Gelatino-chloride Prints

the above purpose. 9949

Film Negatives--Eastman stripping films, their manipulation
and development. 9949

IX. SANITATION--French Disinfecting Apparatus--A portable
apparatus for disinfecting clothes and similar objects--1
illustration. 9952

X. TECHNOLOGY.--The Manufacture of Cocaine--The extraction
of cocaine with alkali and petroleum, with statement of
percentage yielded by various leaves. 9954

The Production of Oxygen by Brin's Process--The commercial
manufacture of oxygen by means of baryta--3 illustrations. 9950

#Transcriber's Note: Following entry not in original table of contents#

Deep Sea Dredgings: Examination Of Sea Bottoms. By THOMAS 9958

* * * * *


The hot air engine, although theoretically recognized for some time
past as the most economical means of converting heat into motive
power, has up to the present met with little success. This is due to
the fact that the arrangement of the motors of this class that have
hitherto been constructed has been such as to render them but slightly
practical. In the Benier hot air engine (illustrated herewith),
however, obstacles that were once considered insurmountable have been
overcome, and the motor presents many advantages over all the types
that have preceded it. Among such advantages we shall cite the
possibility of utilizing air at a high temperature (1,200 or 1,500
degrees), while the rubbing surfaces remain at a moderate temperature
(60 or 80 degrees). The fire grate is placed in the interior of the
cylinder, and is traversed by the cold air forced by a pump. The
expanded hot gases fill the cylinder and act against the piston
directly above the grate.

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