Disease and Its Causes by William Thomas Councilman


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Page 1

Very few authors are mentioned in the text and no bibliography is
given. There is lack of literature dealing with the general aspects of
disease; the book moreover is not written for physicians, and the list
of investigators from whose work the knowledge of disease has been
derived would be too long to cite.

It has been assumed that the reader has some familiarity with
elementary anatomy and physiology, and these subjects have been
considered only as much as is necessary to set the scene for the
drama. I am indebted to my friend, Mr. W. R. Thayer, for patiently
enduring the reading of the manuscript and for many suggestions as to
phrasing.




CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE

CHAPTER I

DEFINITION OF DISEASE.--CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING MATTER.--CELLS AS
THE LIVING UNITS.--AMOEBA AS TYPE OF A UNICELLULAR ANIMAL.--THE
RELATION OF LIVING MATTER TO ENVIRONMENT.--CAPACITY OF ADAPTATION TO
ENVIRONMENT SHOWN BY LIVING MATTER.--INDIVIDUALITY OF LIVING
MATTER.--THE CAUSES OF DISEASE EXTRINSIC.--THE RELATION OF THE HUMAN
BODY TO THE ENVIRONMENT.--THE SURFACES OF THE BODY.--THE INCREASE OF
SURFACE BY GLAND FORMATION.--THE REAL INTERIOR OF THE BODY REPRESENTED
BY THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES PLACED BETWEEN THE SURFACES.--THE FLUIDS OF
THE BODY.--THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.--THE HEART AND BLOOD-VESSELS.--THE
CELLS OF THE BLOOD.--THE DUCTLESS GLANDS 9

CHAPTER II

NO SHARP LINE OF DEMARCATION BETWEEN HEALTH AND DISEASE.--THE
FUNCTIONAL NUTRITIVE AND FORMATIVE ACTIVITIES OF CELLS.--DESTRUCTION
AND REPAIR CONSTANT PROCESSES IN LIVING MATTER.--INJURIES TO THE
BODY.--THE EFFECT OF HEAT.--THE ACTION OF POISONS.--THE LESIONS OF
DISEASE.--REPAIR.--THE LAWS GOVERNING REPAIR.--RELATION OF REPAIR TO
COMPLEXITY OF STRUCTURE AND AGE.--THE RESERVE FORCE OF THE
BODY.--COMPENSATORY PROCESSES IN THE BODY.--OLD AGE.--THE DIMINUTION
OF RESISTANCE TO THE EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT A PROMINENT FACTOR IN
OLD AGE.--DEATH.--HOW BROUGHT ABOUT.--CHANGES IN THE BODY AFTER
DEATH.--THE RECOGNITION OF DEATH 40

CHAPTER III

THE GROWTH OF THE BODY.--GROWTH MORE RAPID IN EMBRYONIC PERIOD.--THE

COMPARED WITH NORMAL GROWTH.--SIZE. SHAPE AND STRUCTURE OF
TUMORS.--THE GROWTH CAPACITY OF TUMORS AS SHOWN BY THE INOCULATION OF
TUMORS OF MICE.--BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMORS.--EFFECT OF
INHERITANCE.--ARE TUMORS BECOMING MORE FREQUENT?--THE EFFECT PRODUCED
BY A TUMOR ON THE INDIVIDUAL WHO BEARS IT.--RELATION OF TUMORS TO AGE
AND SEX.--THEORIES AS TO THE CAUSE OF TUMORS.--THE PARASITIC
THEORY.--THE TRAUMATIC THEORY.--THE EMBRYONIC THEORY.--THE IMPORTANCE OF
THE EARLY RECOGNITION AND REMOVAL OF TUMORS 62

CHAPTER IV

THE REACTIONS OF THE TISSUES OF THE BODY TO INJURIES.--INFLAMMATION.--
THE CHANGES IN THE BLOOD IN THIS.--THE LMIGRATION OF THE CORPUSCLES OF
THE BLOOD.--THE EVIDENT CHANGES IN THE INJURED PART AND THE MANNER IN
WHICH THESE ARE PRODUCED.--HEAT REDNESS SWELLING AND PAIN.--THE
PRODUCTION OF BLISTERS BY SUNBURN.--THE CHANGES IN THE CELLS OF AN
INJURED PART.--THE CELLS WHICH MIGRATE FROM THE BLOOD VESSELS ACT AS
PHAGOCYTES.--THE MACROPHAGES.--THE MICROPHAGES.--CHEMOTROPISM.--THE
HEALING OF INFLAMMATION.--THE REMOVAL OF THE CAUSE.--CELL REPAIR AND NEW
FORMATION.--NEW FORMATION OF BLOOD VESSELS.--ACUTE AND CHRONIC
INFLAMMATION.--THE APPARENTLY PURPOSEFUL CHARACTER OF THE CHANGES IN
INFLAMMATION 79

CHAPTER V

INFECTIOUS DISEASES.--THE HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE OF EPIDEMICS OF
DISEASE.--THE LOSSES IN BATTLE CONTRASTED WITH THE LOSSES IN ARMIES
PRODUCED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES.--THE DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF
EPIDEMICS.--THE VIEWS OF HIPPOCRATES AND ARISTOTLE.--SPORADIC AND
EPIDEMIC DISEASES.--THE THEORY OF THE EPIDEMIC CONSTITUTION.--THEORY
THAT THE CONTAGIOUS MATERIAL IS LIVING.--THE DISCOVERY OF BACTERIA BY
LOEWENHOECK IN 1675.--THE RELATION OF CONTAGION TO THE THEORY OF
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION.--NEEDHAM AND SPALLANZANI.--THE DISCOVERY OF THE
COMPOUND MICROSCOPE IN 1605.--THE PROOF THAT A LIVING ORGANISM IS THE
CAUSE OF A DISEASE.--ANTHRAX.--THE DISCOVERY OF THE ANTHRAX BACILLUS IN
1851.--THE CULTIVATION OF THE BACILLUS BY KOCH.--THE MODE OF
INFECTION.--THE WORK OF PASTEUR ON ANTHRAX.--THE IMPORTANCE OF THE
DISEASE 97

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